Light is usually (1)as a form of energy and it is indeed a kind of electromagnetic energy, not much different from radio waves, television signals, heat, and X-rays. All of these are made up of waves that spread, bend, interfere with one another, and (2)with obstacles in their path, rather like waves in water. A physicist might tell you that light, along with all its electromagnetic relatives, is really a form of matter, little different from more substantial matter such as houses and, like them, it is made up of individual particles. Light particles, called photons, (3)in streams, similar to the way in which water pours through a hose.
To most people, this might sound paradoxical or illogical, as many things to do with physics seem to these days. How can light be both energy and matter, wave and particle? The reason it can be is, in fact, not at all (4)all energy is a form of matter. Almost everybody recognizes- even if they do not understand- Einstein’s famous equation, E =mc2, which spells it out: E refers to energy and m to the mass of matter. Furthermore, all matter has some of the (5)of waves and some of particles, but the waves of such solid-seeming things as houses are not discernable and can generally be ignored because ordinary matter acts as if it were made up of particles.
- described (This collocates with as.)
- react (This collocates with with.)
- travel (We use travel to talk about the motion of particles.)
- complicated (This means "difficult complex", and is then contrasted ' with a simple explanation.)
- characteristics (This refers to the properties of the waves and particles; the ways they behave.)
Every day, on television, on the radio, and in the newspapers, we see, hear, and read about leaders and politicians making decisions that are clearly wrong-headed and that seem to us, the horrified watchers, listeners, and readers, counter-productive. To be reasonably impartial about such blunders, we must try to put (1)for the moment how the decision might affect us as individuals; what we are looking for are decisions that are contrary to the interests of their makers. A glaring historical example of such stupidity would be the respective attempts of Charles XII, Napoleon Bonaparte, and Hitler to invade Russia (2)the disasters it brought each of their predecessors.
Now, when investigating these matters we must tread carefully and remember that it is wrong to judge the past by the ideas of the present. Therefore, the disastrous (3)made in the past must have been seen at the time by contemporaries to be counterproductive, not just with the (4)of experience. Again, we must check to see if there were any other (5)of action that could have been taken and, if so, why they were not.
- aside (If you put something aside for the moment, you ignore it temporarily.)
- despite (This means "in spite of" and can be followed by a noun.)
- decisions (This collocates with made.)
- benefit (This means "advantage ".)
- courses (Courses of action is a collocation.)
A rule of thumb for distinguishing butterflies from moths in this country is to examine the antennae or feelers, although, when comparing Lepidoptera worldwide, this technique is not to be relied on. Generally, especially among those native to the UK, butterflies have clubbed feelers, (1) moths can have feelers of various kinds other than clubbed. There are moths that fly by day and the more brightly colored of them are sometimes (2) for butterflies, but their feelers will distinguish them.
Variations within a single species of butterfly often occur, and all kinds are (3) to vary in their tint or markings, or sometimes both. These variations may at times be so (4) as to be hardly noticeable, but in a fair proportion, the variation is quite striking. In such cases, unless the difference is extreme, it is possible to track all the intermediate stages between the ordinary form of a species and its most extreme variety. The coloring on the underside of a butterfly differs from that of the upper side and matches, or (5) in with, its natural habitat to a remarkable degree. This is why, when they settle, you can see them with their wings positioned together upright over their back.
The number of known species of butterflies throughout the world has been put at about thirteen thousand or more, but some believe there are several thousand more species as yet undiscovered.
- whereas (This contrasts the feelers of butterflies with those of moths.)
- mistaken (This collocates with for.)
- liable (If something is liable to do something, it tends to do it.)
- slight (This means "small, subtle".)
- blends (Blend in with is a collocation.)
In prehistoric times, Europe was (1) with vast primeval woods and forests, which must have deeply influenced the minds as well as the lives of our ancestors. In places where they had not made clearings, they must have Jived in a constant half-light. As far as we know, the oak was the commonest and most (2) tree. We get our evidence partly from the statements of some classical writers, but more convincingly from the (3)of ancient villages built on wooden piles in lakes and from the oak forests which have been found embedded in peat bogs.
These bogs, which are most evident in northern Europe, but which are also found in some central and southern parts of the continent, have (4)the plants and trees which flourished after the end of the Ice Age. The great peat bogs of Ireland reveal that there was a time when vast woods of oak and yew covered the country, the oak growing on hills that were up to a height of four hundred feet or so above the sea, while the yew grew at higher (5)Ancient roadways made of oak have been found, as have, more famously, human relics.
- covered (This collocates with with.)
- useful (This describes the oak tree and the passage later mentions some of its uses.)
- remains (When villages and towns, etc., disappear, they leave behind remains.)
- preserved (This means "kept in the same form or shape".)
- levels (The text is referring to the levels at which different trees grew.)
For copyright purposes, a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work must be original and it must be set down in some (1) form, for example, on paper, computer disk, or on audio or video tape. It is not unusual for people to have the same idea at roughly the same time, but copyright applies in the way an idea is expressed, not in the idea itself. This is because ideas can encompass a wide range of concepts: for example, thousands of books and films have the same basic (2) – boy meets girl, loses girl, gets girl back, good triumphs over evil, and so on. So ideas, as opposed to the way in which they are expressed, cannot be protected under copyright law. Perhaps oddly, statistical lists and computer programs are also (3) as literary works and therefore come under copyright law.
You are breaking the law when you reproduce the whole or a significant part of someone else’s creation without their permission. This would include, for example, recording a CD or a video, putting on a public (4) of a play, making photocopies, or copying onto a computer disk. It is also a breach
of the law to key copyright material into a computer without consent, as is storing it on the computer memory. This can even apply to a small part of a work if the (5) is considered to be essential.
Infringement of copyright can be both a criminal act and a civil wrong. However, consumers who buy illegally copied materials, such as music CDs and films on DVD, for private use cannot be prosecuted, even if they know its origin.
- permanent (This means "lasting for a long ti me''.)
- plots (This refers to the stories in books and films.)
- regarded (This means "thought of" and collocates with as.)
- performance (Public performance is a collocation.)
- content (This means "information".)
The first printed books began to (1) during the second quarter of the l5th century.The earliest examples were put together in a number of different ways, sometimes leaving space for decorations and ornate capitals to be (2) by miniaturist painters, and sometimes containing handwritten text alongside printed illustrations. Most of them had texts and pictures printed (3) from woodblocks, which is how they got the name “block-books”. Printing was normally done on separate leaves which were then bound together in book form.
The obvious advantage of having printed text and visual images together on one sheet was quickly grasped by monks, who saw its (4) as a means of spreading knowledge, and as an economic and effective way to get their message across to a wide audience. The monasteries, however, by no means had a monopoly on the production and sale of woodcut printing; in fact, probably the most profitable area of European printmaking was the production of playing cards.
Nonetheless, the content of most surviving block-books is essentially biblical. The purpose of the illustrations was functional: to make the meaning of the stories as clear and as understandable as possible to those who were unable to read the often difficult text. It was also a result of the need to (5) the stories that the characters were presented in contemporary clothes and the illustrations contained details of ordinary life in the late Middle Ages.
- appear (This means "come into existence".)
- added (This means "put on as an extra feature".)
- entirely (This means "completely ".)
- potential (If you see the potential of something, you realize the future possibilities it has.)
- popularize (This means "make available to ordinary people".)