The Eiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in 1889. It was built for the World’s Fair to that iron could be as strong as stone while being infinitely lighter. And in fact the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonry Washington Monument and yet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted every seven years with 50 tons of dark brown paint.
Called “the father of the skyscraper,” the Home Insurance Building, in Chicago in1885 (and demolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and 10 stories. It was the first building to effectively employ a supporting of steel beams and columns, allowing it to have many more windows than traditional masonry structures. But this new construction method made people worry that the building would fall down, leading the city to halt construction until they could the structure’s safety.
In 1929, auto tycoon Walter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank of Manhattan Trust Company to build the world’s tallest skyscraper. Just when it looked like the bank had captured the title, workers at the Chrysler Building jacked a thin spire hidden inside the building through the top of the roof to win the contest.
According to the literature, the history of vaccination can be traced back to as early as the 7th century when the monks in India tried to themselves by drinking snake venom. The first vaccination was inoculation with human smallpox, a practice widely carried out in ancient India, Arabia, and China. This of vaccination collecting pus from a patient suffering from mild form of smallpox virus infection and inoculating the sample to a healthy human, which later led to a minor infection.
This method was first introduced in England by a Greek named E. Timoni. However, this method had a risk of spreading smallpox in the community and even worsening the health of the person who received the inoculation.
While the use of human smallpox vaccine was controversial, E. Jenner came up with bovine smallpox vaccine in 1796; this new method also faced controversy, but continued to be universalized. Smallpox became a preventable disease by injecting pus extracted from a human infected with cowpox virus. Jenner named the substance “vaccine” after the Latin word “vacca” which means “cow,” and thus the process of giving vaccine became “vaccination”
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University science is now in real crisis – particularly the non-telegenic, non-ology bits of it such as chemistry. Since 1996, 28 universities have stopped offering chemistry degrees, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry.
The society that as few as six departments (those at Durham, Cambridge, Imperial, UCL, Bristol and Oxford) could remain by 2014. Most recently, Exeter University closed down its chemistry department, blaming it on “market forces”, and Bristol took in some of the refugees.
The closures have been blamed on a in student applications, but money is a : chemistry degrees are expensive to provide – compared with English, for example – and some scientists say that the way the government concentrates research on a small number of top departments, such as Bristol, exacerbates the problem.
Sound depressing, even apocalyptic? Well, it could be the future. If government are right, about 20 years from now, two out of five households will be single . And there is evidence the situation is already . According to a report, Social Isolation in America, published in the American Sociological Review in 2006, the average American today has only two close friends. Twenty-five per cent of those surveyed said they do not have anyone to talk with about important things—And yet, while some are a crisis in our ability to make friends, others are saying exactly the opposite. For example, MSN’s Anatomy of Friendship Report, published last November, suggests that the average Briton has 54 friends – a spectacular rise of 64 per cent 2003
Financing of Australian higher education has undergone dramatic change since the early 1970s. Although the Australian Government provided regular funding for universities from the late 1950s, in 1974 it full responsibility for funding higher education -abolishing tuition fees with the intention of making university to all Australians who had the ability and who wished to participate in higher education.
Since the late 1980s, there has been a move towards greater private contributions, particularly student fees. In 1989, the Australian Government introduced the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) which included a loans scheme to help students finance their . This enabled universities to remain accessible to students by delaying their payments until they could afford to pay off their loans. In 2002, the Australian Government a scheme similar to HECS for postgraduate students -the Postgraduate Education Loan Scheme (PELS).
Funding for higher education comes from various sources. This article examines the three main sources – Australian Government funding, student fees and charges, and HECS. While the proportion of total raised through HECS is relatively small, HECS payments are a significant component of students’ university costs, with many students carrying a HECS debt for several years after leaving university. This article also focuses on characteristics of university students based on their HECS liability status, and the level of accumulated HECS debt.
Mintel Consumer Intelligence the 2002 market for vegetarian foods, those that directly replace meat or other animal products, to be $1.5 billion. Note that this excludes traditional vegetarian foods such as produce, pasta, and rice. Mintel forecasts the market to nearly double by 2006 to $2.8 billion, with the highest growth coming from soymilk, especially refrigerated brands.
The Food and Drug Administration’s 1999 decision to allow manufacturers to include heart-healthy claims on foods that deliver at least 6.25 grams of soy protein per serving and are also low in saturated fat and cholesterol has tremendous interest in soymilk and other soy foods. A representative of manufacturer Food Tech International (Veggie Patch brand) reported that from 1998 to 1999, the percentage of consumers willing to try soy products jumped from 32% to 67%. Beliefs about soy’s in reducing the symptoms of menopause also attracted new consumers. A 2000 survey conducted by the United Soybean Board showed that the number of people eating soy products once a week or more was up to 27%. Forty-five percent of respondents had tried tofu, 41% had veggie burgers, and 25% had experience with soymilk (Soyfoods USA e-mail newsletter). Mintel estimates 2001 sales of frozen and refrigerated meat in food stores at nearly $300 million, with soymilk sales nearing $250 million.
Drive down any highway, and you’ll see a proliferation of china restaurants – most likely, if you travel long and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs for Burger King, Hardee’s, and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though, Burger King has fallen short of the burger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald’s No.1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No.2. Worse yet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders have increased. The decline has been to inconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in placem.
The importance of consistency in brand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basic of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s order must communicate the same message as Burger King’s famous tagline, “Have it your way,” or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chain restaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more .
Proliferation of chain restaurant, customer traffic, quality rating, three contenders, consistency in brand image, tenet.
DNA barcoding was invented by Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph, in Ontario, Canada, in 2003. His idea was to a unique identification tag for each species based on a short of DNA. Separating species would then be a simple task of sequencing this tiny bit of DNA. Dr Hebert proposed part of a gene called cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) as suitable to the task. All animals have it. It seems to vary enough, but not too much, to act as a reliable marker. And it is easily , because it is one of a handful of genes found outside the cell nucleus, in structures called mitochondria.
Barcoding has taken off rapidly since Dr Hebert invented it. When the idea was proposed, it was expected to be a to taxonomists trying to name the world’s millions of species. It has, however, proved to have a far wider range of uses than the merely academic—most promisingly in the of public health.
The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000-km-long coral off the north eastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun’s energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, sub polar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a environment with few life forms.
In 1977, scientists discovered hot springs at a depth of 2.5 km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a . Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centres along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000 °C, presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally , was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life — giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels — that around the hot springs.
Jean Piaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of his professional life listening to children, watching children and over reports of researchers around the world who were doing the same. He found, to put it most , that children don’t think like grownups. After thousands of interactions with young people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to that behind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and their own special logic. Einstein called it a “so simple that only a genius could have thought of it.”
Piaget’s insight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide-ranging and remarkably research career that spanned nearly 75 years–from his first scientific publication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84–Piaget had developed several new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitive theory and what came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not an educational reformer, he championed a way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today’s education-reform movements. It was a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of “noble savages” and “cannibals” by modern anthropology. One might say that Piaget was the first to take children’s thinking seriously.